BBC News has an overview of Pamuk's career so far.
Turkey's best-known author has also clashed with his country's government and Turkish nationalists.
He has been outspoken about Turkey's treatment of its minorities and its record on human rights.
"We have to be able to talk about the past," he has said.
Last year he faced charges of "insulting Turkishness" that could have seen him jailed for up to three years. The charges - which drew international condemnation - were dropped in January.